|System devices allow global service of multiple passageways and user identification with many identity factors as well as integration with other security systems (i.e. CCTV). System consist of few basic elements that allow building any access control system.
Basic element which allows to integrate access control devices is controller. Its primary functions are storing user passwords, adding/deleting/modifying users, servicing and steering additional modules (readers, additional memory, communication modules) and communication with periphery devices (computer, printer, etc.). Important element is capability to register events and their further analysis. Controllers are quipped in communication modules and alarm or steering inputs/outputs. Controller programming is done by dedicated computer software.
Input circuits (built-in as well as external) have options connected with few alarm stares and tamper that can occur during devices work. Circuit has input that signals doors opening or closing. Depending on signal we can obtain information about:
- forced door - door has been opened without using valid card or code,
- propped door - exceedance of time limit set for closing door. Usually there is possibility of setting this limit manually.
System after detecting one of above states sends signal via dedicated alarm output. Some devices have additional inputs (i.e. for PIR detectors) and can be used for signaling alarm states. Controllers are equipped with reader ports that allow connecting many identification devices i.e. proximity readers, keypads, biometric readers. In advanced systems there is possibility of choosing identification format (WIEGAND, MOTOROLA, PROTECH etc.).
Next extremely important element that integrates entire system is software. With its help we are able to configure and manage entire system. Few of software's primary tasks are creating and further servicing of data base (users, passage, time tables, access groups etc.). Additionally producers equip their software in time and attendance modules, report functions, additional functions enabling steering of external devices (i.e. lighting).
Entire system is connected by communication modules, which provide to each of system elements possibility to transmit and receive information. Currently most commonly used formats are RS485 or RS232. Computer network communication protocols are gaining on significance. Most of controllers present on our market are equipped with communication modules but producers offer additional modules that extend communication possibilities.
Another element are user identification devices. Amongst them we can distinguish few basic methods:
- Proximity cards
Equipped with electronic circuit and antenna. They have individual, programmed by producer code, that contains i.e. objects data or user id. Card identification method is based on simple rule. Reader emits constant signal which induces current (in passive card) or is received (in active card) by electronic circuit. In case of passive card, current that is induced in coil antenna powers electric circuit which sends card code to the reader. Active card has its own power source therefore it is able to send signal on its own. Impulse is received and processed by reader. Next it is send to control unit. Active cards thanks to their internal power source (battery) can send strong signal back to reader. They are perfect for objects with high movement density or in places where bigger reading distances are required (ranging from few cm up to 2 meters). Passive cards due to obtaining power from electro-magnetic field much have shorter ranges of transmission. They are ideal for objects with small movement density. Both types are made in form of card (they resemble credit cards) or in form of tag, "watches", etc. Big advantage of cards is their long life time and little damage vulnerability.
- Magnetic cards
Made in form of typical credit card. They have magnetic bar with few tracks for writing. Reading is done after inserting card into readers socket. Advantage of this solution is low cost. Disadvantage is short life time and high vulnerability to mechanic damage, deleting data or copying them.
- Barcode cards
They have their individual barcode. Reading after putting against reader. This solution is fast and secure but of low popularity.
- Dallas pills
Made in form of pills, they contain code programmed by producer. Data transmission starts when pill is put into readers socket. Long life time, guaranteed unique code, reliability are big advantages of this solution.
Keypad data insertion is one of oldest identification methods but still popular. For simple access control keypad with user buffer can be used. Inserting correct code causes signal to be send by one of outputs i.e. to electric lock. Depending on producer keypads can store from few up to tens of individual codes and service up to few passages. For system circuits keypad is device for user code insertion, which is received by superior device. Keypad is often used for system programming. Some producers in order to protect code from being peeped by unwanted person use random digit display under buttons and additional side covers. Cheap and efficient (one keypad per several persons), but not very practical when often used(long code insertion time).
- Biometric methods
In facilities of high security level biometric readers are being used. Most popular readers are:
- epidermal ridges scanner, based on scanning (CCD element) individual epidermal ridges and further analysis done by comparison of stored pattern or pattern saved on portable memory drive. Read time 1 sec.
- hand shape recognition, CCD camera scans 3D hand image. Device compares image taken with pattern stored in internal or external memory. Read time 1 sec.
- retinal scan, maps the unique patterns of a person's retina. The blood vessels within the retina absorb light more readily than the surrounding tissue and are easily identified with appropriate lighting. A retinal scan is performed by casting an undetectable ray of low-energy infrared light into a person's eye as they look through the scanner's eyepiece. Disadvantage of this method is having to keep eye close to scanner.
- iris recognition, one of newest methods, scans unique iris pattern. Solution practicaly flawless. Allows to make reliable scans from up to tens of centimeters. Fast identification time, below 1 sec.
- speech identification, device analysis spoken few syllable password. Individual voice spectrum provides high reliability.
IQ series controllers are fully functional elements of professional access control system. Offered models support 2, 6 and 10 readers. They are equipped with control outputs and inputs. Communication between controller and server is done by RS232 or RS485, TCP/IP protocols or via modem. All reader inputs are supervised. Controllers support most formats (Wiegand 26, 37, Protech, etc.). Number of users up to 8000 or 20000 in extended version.
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Last modification date: 2020-09-21 , 21:23:51
Products, security systems, control panels, IP cameras, CCTV, Warsaw, monitoring, intercom, access control
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Volta Warsaw. Alarm and fire detection systems - CCTV, motion detectors, cameras, exit buttons and fire buttons, outdoor motion detectors, doorphones, monitoring, leakage detectors and alarm devices. Also sales via web.
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